3 Language Formula
NEWS: SFI calls for rollback of 3 language formula.
SOURCE: The Hindu
It is commonly understood that the three languages referred to are Hindi, English and the regional language of the respective States. Though the teaching of Hindi across the country was part of a long-standing system, it was crystallised into a policy in an official document only in the National Policy on Education, 1968.
This document said regional languages were already in use as the media of education in the primary and secondary stages. In addition, it said, “At the secondary stage, State governments should adopt and vigorously implement the three-language formula, which includes the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, apart from Hindi and English in the Hindi-speaking States.”
In the ‘non-Hindi speaking States’, Hindi should be studied along with the regional language and English. It added: “Suitable courses in Hindi and/or English should also be available in universities and colleges with a view to improving the proficiency of students in these languages up to the prescribed university standards.”
On promotion of Hindi, the NPE 1968 said every effort should be made to promote the language and that “in developing Hindi as the link language, due care should be taken to ensure that it will serve, as provided for in Article 351 of the Constitution, as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India. The establishment, in non-Hindi States, of colleges and other institutions of higher education which use Hindi, as the medium of education should be encouraged”.
Incidentally, the NPE 1986 made no change in the 1968 policy on the three-language formula and the promotion of Hindi and repeated it verbatim.
Why in News: The Central government released a draft NPE, a report prepared by a committee headed by space scientist K. Kasturirangan. Its reference to mandatory teaching of Hindi in non-Hindi speaking States set off a political storm in Tamil Nadu, which is traditionally opposed to the compulsory study of Hindi.
National Policy On Education 1968
The Government of India issued the Resolution on National Policy on Education in 1968. Its objectives were on
• Free and Compulsory Education.
• Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers
• Development of Languages.
• Equalisation of Educational Opportunities.
• Identification of Talents
• Work - Experience and National Service.
• Science Education and Research.
• Education for Agriculture and Industry.
• Production of Books.
• Secondary Education
• University Education
• Part time education and correspondence courses.
• Spread of Literacy and Adult Education.
• Games and Sports
• Education of Minorities.
• The Educational Structure.
Extracts From The Policy :
• A radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines recommended by the Education Commission, which will involve -
• A transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people.
• A continuous effort to expand educational opportunity.
• A sustained and intensive effort to raise the equality of education at all stages.
• An emphasis on the development of science and technology.
• Emphasis on the cultivation of moral and social values.