SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
News: Quick, cheap diagnostic test for Haemophilia A.
Source: The Hindu
Hemophilia A, also called factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency or classic hemophilia, is a genetic disorder caused by missing or defective factor VIII, a clotting protein. Although it is passed down from parents to children, about 1/3 of cases are caused by a spontaneous mutation, a change in a gene
People with hemophilia A often, bleed longer than other people. Bleeds can occur internally, into joints and muscles, or externally, from minor cuts, dental procedures or trauma. How frequently a person bleeds and the severity of those bleeds depends on how much FVIII is in the plasma, the straw-colored fluid portion of blood.
Normal plasma levels of FVIII range from 50% to 150%. Levels below 50%, or half of what is needed to form a clot, determine a person’s symptoms.
The best place for patients with hemophilia to be diagnosed and treated is at one of the federally-funded hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs) that are spread throughout the country. HTCs provide comprehensive care from skilled hematologists and other professional staff, including nurses, physical therapists, social workers and sometimes dentists, dieticians and other healthcare providers.
A medical health history is important to help determine if other relatives have been diagnosed with a bleeding disorder or have experienced symptoms. Tests that evaluate clotting time and a patient’s ability to form a clot may be ordered. A clotting factor test, called an assay, will determine the type of hemophilia and its severity.
The main medication to treat hemophilia A is concentrated FVIII product, called clotting factor or simply factor. Recombinant factor products, which are developed in a lab through the use of DNA technology, preclude the use of human-derived pools of donor-sourced plasma. And while plasma-derived FVIII products are still available, approximately 75% of the hemophilia community takes a recombinant FVIII product.
Services Trade Restrictiveness Index
News: India finds OECD Index for services trade faulty.
Launched in 2014, the OECD Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) is a unique, evidence-based tool that provides information on regulations affecting trade in services in 22 sectors across all OECD member countries and Brazil, the People’s Republic of China, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. These countries and sectors represent over 80% of global trade in services.
The STRI toolkit can support policymakers to scope out reform options, benchmark them relative to global best practice, and assess their likely effects; for trade negotiators to clarify restrictions that most impede trade, and for businesses to shed light on the requirements that traders must comply with when entering foreign markets.
The OECD STRI project includes:
• An annual monitoring of the regulatory environment for services trade
• An easily accessible STRI database of laws and regulations in force, which is updated, verified and peer-reviewed by regulators and trade officials on an annual basis.
• Composite STRI indices for each country and sector in the STRI that quantify restrictions on foreign entry and the movement of people, barriers to competition, regulatory transparency and other discriminatory measures that impact the ease of doing business (see country and sector notes below).
• Indices of regulatory heterogeneity that measures regulatory differences by country pair, sector and year.
• Empirical analysis assessing the impact of services trade policies on economic performance and trade costs.
• A suite of interactive web tools that can be used to compare regulatory regimes across countries and to simulate the impact of policy reforms.
• Mobile app policy simulator, available on the Apple App Store and Google Play.