News: Brief on SIMBEX-19.
Singapore India Maritime Bilateral Exercise.
Since its inception in 1993, SIMBEX has grown in tactical and operational complexity. the annual bilateral exercise saw its progression from traditional anti-submarine exercises to more complex maritime exercises such as advanced air defence operations, anti air/ surface practice firings, tactical exercises, etc.
Article 12 And State
News: HC: United Nations not a State under Article 12.
Source: The Hindu
The Delhi High Court has ruled that the United Nations is not a State under Article 12 of the Constitution of India and is not amenable to its jurisdiction under Article 226 of the Constitution.
Sanjaya Bahel, convicted by a US Federal Court and sentenced to 97 months of imprisonment and two years of mandatory probation, was released and deported to India in May 2014.
UNO and its officials enjoy immunity under the United Nations (Privileges and Immunities) Act, 1947. It also said as per Section 2 of Article II of the Schedule of Act, 1947, UNO has immunity from every form of legal process except insofar as in any particular case it has expressly waived its immunity.
Definition In this part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.
The term ‘State’ has been used in different provisions concerning the fundamental rights. Hence, Article 12 has defined the term for the purposes of Part III. According to it, the State includes the following:
Government and Parliament of India, that is, executive and legislative organs of the Union government.
Government and legislature of states, that is, executive and legislative organs of state government.
All local authorities, that is, municipalities, panchayats, district boards, improvement trusts, etc.
All other authorities, that is, statutory or non-statutory authorities like LIC, ONGC, SAIL, etc.
Thus, State has been defined in a wider sense so as to include all its agencies. It is the actions of these agencies that can be challenged in the courts as violating the Fundamental Rights.
According to the Supreme Court, even a private body or an agency working as an instrument of the State falls within the meaning of the ‘State’ under Article 12.
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
News: With RISAT-2B, India resumes radar imaging space fleet.
Source: The Hindu
RISAT-2B is a radar imaging earth observation satellite weighing about 615 kg. The satellite is intended to provide services in the field of Agriculture, Forestry and Disaster Management.
RISAT-2, or Radar Imaging Satellite 2 is an Indian radar reconnaissance satellite that is part of India's RISAT programme. It was built by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and successfully launched aboard a PSLV-CA rocket at 01:15 GMT on April 20, 2009 from the Second Launch Pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre.
RISAT-2's main sensor is an X-band synthetic aperture radar from Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) It is designed to monitor India's borders and as part of anti-infiltration and anti-terrorist operations. The satellite has a mass of 300 kilograms (660 lb).