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    Data Localization

    News: Data localization why and why not.
    Source: The Indian Express

    Data localization is the act of storing data on any device that is physically present within the borders of a specific country where the data was generated. Free flow of digital data, especially data which could impact government operations or operations in a region, is restricted by some governments. Many attempt to protect and promote security across borders, and therefore encourage data localization.

    The draft Personal Data Protection Bill, 2018 also suggested that critical personal data, which the bill leaves to the centre to define, must be stored and processed only in India. The onus on storing and processing data in India might lead to a surveillance state with government and RBI having access to all personal information of people, said a privacy expert who did not wish to be named.


    Time Zones

    News: Should India have two time zones? National timekeeper adds new arguments.
    Source: The Indian Express

    If lines of longitude are drawn exactly a degree apart, they will divide the Earth into 360 zones. Because the Earth spins 360° in 24 hours, a longitudinal distance of 15° represents a time separation of 1 hour, and 1° represents 4 minutes. Theoretically, the time zone followed by any place should relate to its longitudinal distance from any other place. Political boundaries, however, mean that time zones are often demarcated by bent lines rather than straight lines of longitude. This is “legal time”, as defined by a country’s law.

    The geographic “zero line” runs through Greenwich, London. It identifies GMT, now known as Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), which is maintained by the Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in France. Indian Standard Time, maintained by CSIR-NPL, is based on a line of longitude that runs through Mirzapur in UP. At 82°33’E, the line is 82.5° east of Greenwich, or 5.5 hours (5 hours 30 minutes) ahead of UCT. While India follows one IST, the United States follows several time zones across its breadth.

    India extends from 68°7’E to 97°25’E, with the spread of 29° representing almost two hours from the geographic perspective. This has led to the argument that early sunrise in the easternmost parts — the Northeast — causes the loss of many daylight hours by the time offices or educational institutions open, and that early sunset, for its part, leads to higher consumption of electricity.

    A committee set up in 2002 did not recommend two time zones because of the complexities involved, the government said. It had cited the same committee’s findings in the Gauhati High Court, which last year dismissed a public interest litigation seeking a direction to the Centre to have a separate time zone for the Northeast.

    Council of Scientific & Industrial Research’s National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL)

    The National Physical Laboratory is the National Metrology Institute of india and a Premier Research Laboratory in the field of Physical Sciences. The National Physical Laboratory was conceptualized in 1943 by the Governing Body of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) , with a view to pave way for using science and technology as a means for industrial growth and development, as well as to give fillip to the fledgling Indian industry. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, laid the foundation stone for the laboratory on January 4, 1947 and it was one of the first National Laboratory to be set-up under the CSIR.