ENVIRONMENT & ECOLOGY
Spot-Necked Day Gecko And The Anaimudi Day Gecko
News: India home to two new gecko species.
Source: The Hindu
The spot-necked day gecko and the Anaimudi day gecko, both very distinctly-patterned lizards found only in the higher reaches of the Agasthyamalai and Anamalai hill ranges in the Western Ghats, are the latest additions to India's reptile fauna.
Researchers including Vivek Philip Cyriac of the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvanathapuram (IISER-TVM) were surveying reptiles in Kerala's Shola National Parks in 2013 when they came across a predominantly greyish-brown-coloured gecko.
The approximately six-centimetre-long lizard sported an unusual, bright red iris (a thin band surrounding the pupil of the eye) and a long, striking amber line also ran down its dark back: unlike anything the team had seen.
The team (including scientists at the Zoological Survey of India and National Centre for Biological Sciences) utilized the same method to describe yet another day gecko they spotted at Kollam's Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary – which is part of the Agasthyamalai hill range – in 2016.
Both these diurnal geckos are currently known only from single localities in high-elevation forests located at more than 1,200 metres above mean sea level in the Ghats.
Brown Field And Green Field FDI
News: Brown field projects to get over in 2019: Divis.
Source: The Hindu
Greenfield investment is investment in new plants. It is establishing new production capacity by an investor or company. On the other, Brownfield investment is an investor investing in an existing plant.
Brownfield investment is mainly made through merger and acquisitions.
Applying the same criteria, Greenfield FDI in India is investment by a foreign investor in fresh production facilities. It is a situation where an MNC starts a new venture in India by constructing new operational facilities.
This new production capacity creation will bring new physical assets (like plants and machineries), creates fresh employment and adds to more production of the concerned good. Often Greenfield FDI has a merit that it brings superior technology by the MNC.
Brownfield FDI is investment made by a foreign company in existing production arrangements. An important form of Brownfield investment is merger and acquisition by foreign MNCs in India. Here, a domestic company is taken over by the MNC.
Greenfield FDI makes additional production capacity, whereas Brownfield FDI is purchase of existing production capacities. The latter is just a transfer of ownership of existing firm from a domestic entrepreneur to a foreign one.
Disadvantage of Brownfield FDI as a source of investment is that it doesn’t create expansion of production capacities or employment generation etc.
The differentiation between Greenfield and Brownfield FDI is very important in the context of developing countries like India. A sensitive aspect related with Brownfield investment is that it led to acquisition of domestic companies by MNCs.