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About Us

May

29

2019

    POLITY

    Operation Safed Sagar

    News: The CAS Visits AF StnSarsawa to Pay Homage to the Air Warriors who Made Supreme Sacrifice During Operation SafedSagar.
    Source: PIB

    Operation SafedSagar( "Operation White Sea") was the code name assigned to the Indian Air Force's role in acting jointly with Ground troops during the Kargil war that was aimed at flushing out Regular and Irregular troops of the Pakistani Army from vacated Indian Positions in the Kargil sector along the Line of Control. It was the first large scale use of Airpower in the Jammu and Kashmir region since the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.

    INTERNATIONAL RELATION

    UN Security Council

    News: Vice President calls for renewed efforts for India to gain permanent membership of the UN Security Council.
    Source: PIB

    The United Nations Charter established six main organs of the United Nations, including the Security Council. It gives primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security to the Security Council, which may meet whenever peace is threatened.

    According to the Charter, the United Nations has four purposes:

    • To maintain international peace and security;

    • To develop friendly relations among nations;

    • To cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights;

    • Aand to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

    All members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United Nations make recommendations to member states, only the Security Council has the power to make decisions that member states are then obligated to implement under the Charter.

    When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council’s first action is usually to recommend that the parties try to reach agreement by peaceful means. The Council may:

    set forth principles for such an agreement;
    undertake investigation and mediation, in some cases;
    dispatch a mission;
    appoint special envoys; or
    request the Secretary-General to use his good offices to achieve a pacific settlement of the dispute.

    When a dispute leads to hostilities, the Council’s primary concern is to bring them to an end as soon as possible. In that case, The Council may:

    issue ceasefire directives that can help prevent an escalation of the conflict;
    dispatch military observers or a peacekeeping force to help reduce tensions, separate opposing forces and establish a calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought.

    Beyond this, the Council may opt for enforcement measures, including:

    economic sanctions, arms embargoes, financial penalties and restrictions, and travel bans;
    severance of diplomatic relations;
    blockade;
    or even collective military action.

    A chief concern is to focus action on those responsible for the policies or practices condemned by the international community, while minimizing the impact of the measures taken on other parts of the population and economy.

    GEOLOGY

    Heat Wave

    News: Severe Heat Wave conditions over plains of Northwest India.
    Source: PIB

    A Heat Wave is a period of abnormally high temperatures, more than the normal maximum temperature that occurs during the summer season in the North-Western parts of India. Heat Waves typically occur between March and June, and in some rare cases even extend till July. The extreme temperatures and resultant atmospheric conditions adversely affect people living in these regions as they cause physiological stress, sometimes resulting in death.

    The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has given the following criteria for Heat Waves:

    Heat Wave need not be considered till maximum temperature of a station reaches atleast 40*C for Plains and atleast 30*C for Hilly regions

    When normal maximum temperature of a station is less than or equal to 40*C Heat Wave Departure from normal is 5*C to 6*C Severe Heat Wave Departure from normal is 7*C or more

    When normal maximum temperature of a station is more than 40*C Heat Wave Departure from normal is 4*C to 5*C Severe Heat Wave Departure from normal is 6*C or more

    When actual maximum temperature remains 45*C or more irrespective of normal maximum temperature, heat waves should be declared. Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becomingly increasingly frequent globally due to climate change. India too is feeling the impact of climate change in terms of increased instances of heat waves which are more intense in nature with each passing year, and have a devastating impact on human health thereby increasing the number of heat wave casualties.

    Higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becomingly increasingly frequent globally due to climate change. India too is feeling the impact of climate change in terms of increased instances of heat waves which are more intense in nature with each passing year, and have a devastating impact on human health thereby increasing the number of heat wave casualties.

    Health Impacts of Heat Waves

    The health impacts of Heat Waves typically involve dehydration, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and/or heat stroke. The signs and symptoms are as follows:

    Heat Cramps: Ederna (swelling) and Syncope (Fainting) generally accompanied by fever below 39*C i.e.102*F.

    Heat Exhaustion: Fatigue, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramps and sweating.

    Heat Stoke: Body temperatures of 40*C i.e. 104*F or more along with delirium, seizures or coma. This is a potential fatal condition.